Papers in Review

Gloege, L., G.A. McKinley, P. Landschützer, A. Fay, T. Frölicher, J.C. Fyfe, T. Illyina, S.D. Jones, N.S. Lovenduski, C. Rödenbeck, K.B. Rodgers, S. Schlunegger and Y. Takano: Quantifying errors in observationally-based estimates of ocean carbon sink variability, PNAS, in review 2020. Read it on ESSOArchive


Ridge, S.M. and G.A. McKinley (2020) Advective controls on the North Atlantic anthropogenic carbon sink, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, in press. (58)

McKinley, G.A., A.R. Fay, Y. Eddebbar, L. Gloege and N. Lovenduski (2020) External forcing explains recent decadal variability of the ocean carbon sink, AGU Advances doi: 10.1029/2019AV000149. (57)

Gloege, L., G.A. McKinley, R. Mooney, J.D. Allan, M.W. Diebel and P.B. McIntyre (2020) Lake hydrodynamics intensify the potential impact of watershed pollutants on coastal ecosystem services, Envi. Res. Lett. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/ab7f62. (56)

Uchida, T., D. Balwada, R. Abernathey, G.A. McKinley, S. Smith and M. Levy (2020) Eddy iron fluxes control primary production in the open Southern Ocean, Nature Communications. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-14955-0. (55)

Uchida, T., D. Balwada, R. Abernathey, G.A. McKinley, S. Smith and M. Levy (2019) The contribution of submesoscale over mesoscale eddy iron transport in the open Southern Ocean, J. Adv. Model. Earth Sys., doi:10.1029/2019MS001805. (54)

Chen, H.C. and G.A. McKinley (2019) Isopycnal processes allow for summertime heterotrophy despite net oxygen accumulation in the lower-euphotic zone of the western North Atlantic subtropical gyre, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, doi:10.1029/2018GB006094. (53)

McKinley, G.A., A.L. Ritzer, and N.S. Lovenduski (2018) Mechanisms of northern North Atlantic biomass variability, Biogeosciences 15, 6049-6066, doi:10.5194/bg-15-6049-2018. (52)

Fay, A.R., N.S. Lovenduski, G.A. McKinley, D.R. Munro, C. Sweeney, A.R. Gray, P. Landschutzer, B. Stephens, T. Takahashi, N. Williams (2018) Utilizing the Drake Passage Time-series to understand variability and change in subpolar Southern Ocean pCO2, Biogeosciences 15, 3841-3855, doi:10.5194/bg-15-3841-2018. (51)

Muller-Karger et al. (2018) Satellite sensor requirements for monitoring essential biodiversity variables of coastal ecosystems. Ecological Applications, doi:10.1002/eap.1682. (50)

Peters, G.P., C. LeQuere, R.M. Andrew, J.G. Canadell, P. Friedlingstein, T. Ilyina, R.B. Jackson, F. Joos, J.I. Korsbakken, G.A. McKinley, S. Sitch, and P. Tans (2017) Towards real-time verification of CO2 emissions, Nature Climate Change, doi:10.1038/s41558-017-0013-9. (49)

Golub, M., A.R. Desai, G.A. McKinley, C.K. Remucal, and E.H. Stanley (2017) Large uncertainty in estimating pCO2 from carbonate equilibria in lakes, J. Geophys. Res.- Biogeosciences, 122 (48)

Pilcher, D.J., G.A. McKinley, J. Kralj, H.A. Bootsma, and E. D. Reavie (2017) Modeled sensitivity of Lake Michigan productivity and zooplankton to changing nutrient concentrations and quagga mussels, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans doi:10.1002/2017JG003818. (47)

Gloege, L., G.A. McKinley, C.B. Mouw, A. Ciochetto. (2017) Global evaluation of particulate organic carbon flux parameterizations and implications for atmospheric pCO2, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, doi:10.1002/2016GB005535. (46)

Orr, J. C., Najjar, R. G., Aumont, O., Bopp, L., Bullister, J. L., Danabasoglu, G., Doney, S. C., Dunne, J. P., Dutay, J.-C., Graven, H., Griffies, S. M., John, J. G., Joos, F., Levin, I., Lindsay, K., Matear, R. J., McKinley, G. A., Mouchet, A., Oschlies, A., Romanou, A., Schlitzer, R., Tagliabue, A., Tanhua, T., and Yool, A. (2017) Biogeochemical protocols and diagnostics for the CMIP6 Ocean Model Intercomparison Project (OMIP), Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2169-2199, doi:10.5194/gmd-10-2169-2017. (45)

Fay, A.R. and G.A. McKinley (2017) Correlations of surface ocean pCO2 to satellite chlorophyll on monthly to interannual timescales, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 31, doi:10.1002/2016GB005563. (44)

McKinley, G.A., A.R. Fay, N. Lovenduski, and D.J. Pilcher (2017) Natural variability and anthropogenic trends in the ocean carbon sink, Ann. Rev. Mar. Sci. 9: 125-150, doi:10.1146/annurev-marine-010816-060529. (43)

Mouw, C.B., A. Barnett, G.A. McKinley, L. Gloege, D.J. Pilcher (2016) Phytoplankton size impact on export flux in the global ocean, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 30, doi:10.1002/2015GB005355. (42)

Mouw, C.B., A. Barnett, G.A. McKinley, L. Gloege, D.J. Pilcher (2016) Global ocean particulate organic carbon flux merged with satellite parameters. Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 531-541, doi:10.5194/essd-8-531-2016. (41)

Lovenduski, N., G.A. McKinley, A.R. Fay, K. Lindsay, M.C. Long (2016) Partitioning uncertainty in ocean carbon uptake projections, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 30, 1276–1287, doi:10.1002/2016GB005426. (40)

McKinley, G.A., D.J. Pilcher, A.R. Fay, K. Lindsay, M.C. Long, and N. Lovenduski (2016) Timescales for detection of trends in the ocean carbon sink, Nature, doi:10.1038/nature16958. (39) Part of Nature’s Carbon Accounting Collection.

Breeden, M. and G.A. McKinley (2016) Climate impacts on multidecadal pCO2 variability in the North Atlantic: 1948–2009, Biogeosciences, 13, 3387-3396, doi:10.5194/bg-13-3387-2016. (38)

McKinley, G.A., C.A. Carlson, A. Andrews, D. Brown, P. Romero-Lankao, and G. Shrestha (2015) Managing the carbon cycle requires strong science, Eos, 96, doi:10.1029/2015EO040161. (37)

Dave, A., A.D. Barton, M.S. Lozier, and G.A. McKinley (2015) What drives seasonal change in oligotrophic area in the subtropical North Atlantic? J. Geophys. Res. – Oceans, doi: 10.1002/2015JC010787. (36)

Phillips, J., G.A. McKinley, V. Bennington, H. Bootsma, D. Pilcher, R.W. Sterner, N.R. Urban (2015) Evaluating the potential for CO2-induced acidification of the Laurentian Great Lakes, Oceanography 28(2):136–145. doi:10.5670/oceanog.2015.37. (35)

Lovenduski, N., A.R. Fay, G.A. McKinley (2015) Observing multi-decadal trends in Southern Ocean CO2 uptake: What can we learn from an ocean model?, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, doi: 10.1002/2014GB004933. (34)

Pilcher, D.J., G.A. McKinley, V. Bennington, H. Bootsma (2015) Physical and biogeochemical mechanisms of internal carbon cycling in Lake Michigan, J. Geophys. Res., doi: 10.1002/2014JC010594. (33)

Kitchell, J.F., T. Cline, V. Bennington and G.A. McKinley (2015) Challenges of managing invasive sea lamprey in Lake Superior. In Bioeconomics of Invasive Species: Integrating Ecology, Economics, Policy and Management. ed: R. P. Keller, D. M. Lodge, M. A. Lewis, J. F. Shogren, University of Chicago Press. (32)

Fay, A.R., G.A. McKinley, N. Lovenduski (2014) Southern Ocean carbon trends: Sensitivity to methods, Geophys. Res. Lett. doi: 10.1002/2014GL061324. (31)

Fay, A. R., and G. A. McKinley (2014) Global ocean biomes: mean and temporal variability, Earth Syst. Sci. Data 6, 273-284, doi:10.5194/essd-6-273-2014. Download biomes from PANGAEA. (30)

Cline, T., J.F. Kitchell, V. Bennington, G.A. McKinley, E.K. Moody, B.C. Weidel (2014) Climate impacts on landlocked sea lamprey: Implications for host-parasite interactions and invasive species management. Ecosphere 5 (6), art68. doi: 10.1890/ES14-00059.1. (29)

Fay, A. R., and G. A. McKinley (2013), Global trends in surface ocean pCO2 from in situ data, Global Biogeochem. Cycles 27, doi:10.1002/gbc.20051. (28)

Khatiwala, S., Tanhua, T., Mikaloff Fletcher, S., Gerber, M., Doney, S. C., Graven, H. D., Gruber, N., McKinley, G. A., Murata, A., Ríos, A. F., and Sabine, C. L. (2013) Global ocean storage of anthropogenic carbon, Biogeosciences 10, 2169-2191, doi:10.5194/bg-10-2169-2013. (27)

Wanninkhof, R., Park, G. -H., Takahashi, T., Sweeney, C., Feely, R., Nojiri, Y., Gruber, N., Doney, S. C., McKinley, G. A., Lenton, A., Le Quéré, C., Heinze, C., Schwinger, J., Graven, H., and Khatiwala, S. (2013) Global ocean carbon uptake: magnitude, variability and trends, Biogeosciences 10, 1983-2000, doi:10.5194/bg-10-1983-2013. (26)

Mouw, C. B., H. Chen, G. A. McKinley, S. Effler, D. O’Donnell, M. G. Perkins, and C. Strait (2013), Evaluation and optimization of bio-optical inversion algorithms for remote sensing of Lake Superior’s optical properties, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 118, doi:10.1002/jgrc.20139. (25)

Schuster, U., G.A. McKinley, N. Bates, F. Chevallier, S.C. Doney, A.R. Fay, M. González-Dávila, N. Gruber, S. Jones, J. Krijnen, P. Landschützer, N. Lefèvre, M. Manizza, J. Mathis, N. Metzl, N., A. Olsen, A.F. Rios, C. Rödenbeck, J. M. Santana-Casiano, T. Takahashi, R. Wanninkhof, and A.J. Watson (2013) Atlantic and Arctic sea-air CO2 fluxes, 1990–2009. Biogeosciences 10, 607-627, doi:10.5194/bg-10-607-2013. (24)

Bennington, V., G.A. McKinley, N. Urban, C. McDonald (2012) Can spatial heterogeneity explain the perceived imbalance in Lake Superior’s carbon budget? A model study. J. Geophys. Res. 117, G03020, 20 PP., 2012 doi:10.1029/2011JG001895. (23)

McDonald, C.P., V. Bennington, N. Urban and G.A. McKinley (2012) Test-bed calibration of a Lake Superior biogeochemical model, Ecological Modelling 225, 115-126, doi: 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2011.11.021. (22)

Vasys, V.N., A.R. Desai, G.A. McKinley, V. Bennington, A.M. Michalak, D.N. Huntzinger, and A.E. Andrews (2011) Implications of neglecting large lake carbon cycling for regional tracer transport inversions. Envi. Res. Lett. 6, 2011, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/6/3/034016. (21)

McKinley, G.A., A.R. Fay, T. Takahashi and N. Metzl (2011) Convergence of atmospheric and North Atlantic carbon dioxide trends on multidecadal timescales. Nature Geoscience; doi:10.1038/ngeo1193. (20) Supplementary Material can be found here

Atilla, N., G. A. McKinley, V. Bennington, M. Baehr, N.Urban, M. DeGrandpre, A. Desai, and C. Wu (2011) Observed variability of Lake Superior pCO2, Limnol. Oceanogr., 56(3), 2011, 775-786, doi:10.4319/lo.2011.56.3.0775. (19)

Bennington, V., G. A. McKinley, N. Kimura, and C. H. Wu (2010) General circulation of Lake Superior: Mean, variability, and trends from 1979 to 2006, J. Geophys. Res., 115, C12015, doi:10.1029/2010JC006261. (18)

Saba, V. and others (2010) Challenges of modeling depth-integrated marine primary productivity over multiple decades: A case study at BATS and HOT, Global Biogeochem. Cycles., 24, GB3020, doi:10.1029/2009GB003655. (17)

Illari L., J. Marshall, P. Bannon, J. Botella, R. Clark, T. Haine, A. Kumar, S. Lee, K. J. Mackin, G.A. McKinley, M. Morgan, R. Najjar, T. Sikora, and A. Tandon (2009) Weather in a Tank: Exploiting laboratory experiments in the teaching of meteorology, oceanography and climate. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 90(11), doi:10.1175/2009BAMS2658.1. (16)

Desai, A., J. Austin, V. Bennington and G.A. McKinley (2009) Stronger winds over a large lake in response to a weakening air to lake temperature gradient. Nature Geoscience, doi:10.1038/ngeo693. (15)

Ullman, D. J., G. A. McKinley, V. Bennington, and S. Dutkiewicz (2009), Trends in the North Atlantic carbon sink: 1992 – 2006, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 23, GB4011, doi:10.1029/2008GB003383. (14) Supplementary Material

Bennington, V, G.A. McKinley, S. Dutkiewicz, D. Ullman (2009) What does chlorophyll variability tell us about export and air-sea CO2 flux variability in the North Atlantic? Global Biogeochem. Cycles., 23, GB3002, doi:10.1029/2008GB003241. (13) Supplementary Material

Koch, J., G. A. McKinley, V. Bennington, and D. Ullman (2009), Do hurricanes cause significant interannual variability in the air-sea CO2 flux of the subtropical North Atlantic?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L07606, doi:10.1029/2009GL037553. (12) highlighted by Nature Reports Climate Change link Supplementary Material

Cassar, N., G.A. McKinley, M.L. Bender, R. Mika, and M. Battle (2008) An improved comparison of atmospheric Ar/N2 time-series and paired ocean-atmosphere model predictions, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D21122, doi:10.1029/2008JD009817. (11)

Nevison, C.D., N.M. Mahowald, S.C. Doney, I.D. Lima, G.R. van der Werf, J.T. Randerson, D.F. Baker, P. Kasibhatla and G. A. McKinley (2008) Contribution of ocean, fossil fuel, land biosphere and biomass burning carbon fluxes to seasonal and interannual variability in atmospheric CO2, J. Geophys. Res., 113, G01010, doi:10.1029/2007JG000408. (10)

Sweeney, C., E. Gloor, A. R. Jacobson, R. M. Key, G. McKinley, J. L. Sarmiento, and R. Wanninkhof (2007) Constraining global air-sea gas exchange for CO2 with recent bomb 14C measurements,Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 21, GB2015, doi:10.1029/2006GB002784. (9)

McKinley, G.A., T. Takahashi, E. Buitenhuis, F. Chai, J. R. Christian, S. C. Doney, M.-S. Jiang, C. Le Quere, I. Lima, K. Linday, J.K. Moore, R. Murtugudde, L. Shi, P.Wetzel (2006) North Pacific carbon cycle response to climate variability on seasonal to decadal timescales. J. Geophys. Res., 111, C07S06, doi:10.1029/2005JC003173. (8)

McKinley, G.A., M. Zuk, M. Hojer, M. Avalos, I. Gonzalez, R. Iniestra, I. Laguna, M.A. Martinez, P. Osnaya, and J. Martinez (2005) Quantification of local and global benefits from air pollution control in Mexico City. Environ. Sci. Technol., 39, 1954-1961 doi:10.1021/es035183e. (7)

Peylin, P., P. Bousquet, C. LeQuere, P. Friedlingstein, S. Sitch, G.A. McKinley, N. Gruber, P. Ciais, and P. Rayner (2005) Multiple constraints of regional CO2 flux variations over land and oceans. Global Biogeochem. Cycles. 18, GB1011, doi: 10/1029/2003GB002214. (6)

McKinley, G.A., C. Rodenbeck, M. Gloor, S. Houweling and M. Heimann (2004) Pacific dominance to global air-sea CO2 flux variablility: A novel atmospheric inversion agrees with ocean models. Geophys. Res. Let., 31, GL22308, doi:10.1029/2004GL021069. (5)

McKinley, G. A., M. J. Follows, and J. Marshall (2004), Mechanisms of air-sea CO2 flux variability in the equatorial Pacific and the North Atlantic, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 18, GB2011, doi:10.1029/2003GB002179. (4)

McKinley, G.A., M. J. Follows, J. Marshall, and S. Fan (2003) Interannual variability of air-sea O2fluxes and the determination of CO2 sinks using atmospheric O2/N2. Geophys. Res. Let. v 30(3), 1101, doi:10.1029/2002GL016044. (3)

Battle, M., M. Bender, M.B. Hendricks, D.T. Ho, R. Mika, G.A. McKinley, S. Fan, T. Blaine, and R. Keeling (2003) Measurements and models of the atmospheric Ar/N2 ratio. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(15), 1786, doi:10.1029/2003GL017411. (2)

McKinley, G, M. Follows, and J. Marshall (2000) Interannual variability of the air-sea flux of oxygen in the North Atlantic. Geophys. Res. Let., 27(18), 2933-2936. (1)

Non-peer reviewed

Benway, H., Alin, S., Boyer, E., Cai, W.-J., Coble, P., Cross, J., Friedrichs, M., Goñi, M., Griffith, P., Herrmann, M., Lohrenz, S., Mathis, J., McKinley, G., Najjar, R., Pilskaln, C., Siedlecki, S., Smith, R. 2016. A Science Plan for Carbon Cycle Research in North American Coastal Waters. Report of the Coastal CARbon Synthesis (CCARS) community workshop, August 19-21, 2014, Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry Program and North American Carbon Program, 84 pp. Download PDF

Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry Program (2015) Temporal and Spatial Perspectives on the Fate of Anthropogenic Carbon: A Carbon Cycle Slide Deck for Broad Audiences with explanatory notes. Contributors: S. Khatiwala, T. DeVries, J. Cook, G.A. McKinley, C. Carlson, H. Benway. doi: 10.1575/1912/7670.

Bracco, A., M.C. Long, N.M. Levine, R.Q. Thomas, C. Deutsch and G.A. McKinley (2015) NCAR’s Summer Colloquium: Capacity building in cross-disciplinary research of earth system carbon-climate connections, Bulletin Am. Met. Soc., 96, 1381–1384.

Thomas, R.Q., G.A. McKinley, and M.C. Long (2013) Examining uncertainties in representations of the carbon cycle in Earth System Models. EOS Transactions 94:460.

Mooney, M. E., Ackerman, S., Mckinley, G. A., Whittaker, T. and Jasmin, T. (2012) Lesson Plans and Classroom Activities from the Climate Literacy Ambassadors Community. The Earth Scientist 28, 1–40. Download PDF

McKinley, G.A, N. Urban, V. Bennington, D. Pilcher, and C. McDonald, (2011) Preliminary Carbon Budgets for the Laurentian Great Lakes, OCB News 4 Download PDF

Papers in Preparation

Ridge, S.M., G.A. McKinley and M.C. Long. Projected increases in Arctic freshwater export reduce the North Atlantic anthropogenic carbon sink, in prep.

Ridge, S.M., and G.A. McKinley. Ocean carbon uptake under aggressive emission mitigation, in prep.

Gloege, L., G.A. McKinley, M. Yan and T. Zheng. A Hybrid Physics Data (HPD) approach to global mapping of sparse surface ocean carbon data, in prep.


McKinley, G.A. (2002) Interannual variability in air-sea fluxes of carbon dioxide and oxygen, MIT PhD. Download PDF