Papers in Review

Heimdal, T.H. and G.A. McKinley (2024) Using observing system simulation experiments to assess impacts of observational uncertainties in surface ocean pCO2 machine learning reconstructions, Scientific Rep., in review.


Fay, A.R., D.R. Munro, G.A. McKinley, D. Pierrot, S.C. Sutherland, C. Sweeney, and R. Wanninkhof (2024) Updated climatological mean delta fCO2 and net sea–air CO2 flux over the global open ocean regions, Earth System Science Data (80)

Heimdal, T.H., G.A. McKinley, A.J. Sutton, A.R. Fay, and L. Gloege (2024) Assessing improvements in global ocean pCO2 machine learning reconstructions with Southern Ocean autonomous sampling, Biogeosciences doi:10.5194/bg-21-2159-2024. (79)

Guan Y., G.A. McKinley, A. Fay, S.C. Doney and G. Keppel-Aleks (2024) Ocean-driven interannual variability in atmospheric CO2 quantified using OCO-2 observations and atmospheric transport simulations, Front. Mar. Sci. 11 doi:10.3389/fmars.2024.1272415. (78)

Olivarez, H., N.S. Lovenduski, Y. Eddebbar, A.R. Fay, G.A. McKinley, M. Levy and M. Long. How does the Pinatubo eruption influence our understanding of long-term changes in ocean biogeochemistry? (2024) Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1029/2023GL105431. (77)

Friedlingstein, P., M. O’Sullivan, M.W. Jones, R.M. Andrew, D. C. E. Bakker, … G.A. McKinley… et al. (2023) Global Carbon Budget 2023, Earth Sys. Sci. Data doi:10.5194/essd-15-5301-2023. (76) Summary of key messages

McKinley, G.A., V.S. Bennington, M. Meinshausen, and Z. Nicholls (2023) Modern air-sea flux distributions reduce uncertainty in the future ocean carbon sink, Envi. Res. Lett doi:10.1088/1748-9326/acc195. (75)

Fay, A., G.A. McKinley, N. Lovenduski, Y. Eddebbar, M. Levy, M. Long, H. Olivarez and R. Rustagi (2023) Immediate and long-lasting impacts of the Mt. Pinatubo eruption on ocean oxygen and carbon inventories, Global Biogeochem. Cycles doi: 10.1029/2022GB007513. (74)

Gruber, N., D.C.E. Bakker, T. DeVries, L. Gregor, J. Hauck, P. Landschützer, G.A. McKinley and J.D. Muller (2023) Trends and variability in the ocean carbon sink, Nature Reviews Earth and Environment doi:10.1038/s43017-022-00381-x. (73)

Wong, S., G.A. McKinley, and R. Seager (2022) Equatorial Pacific pCO2 Interannual Variability in CMIP6 Models, JGR doi:10.1029/2022JG007243. (72)

Bennington, V.S., T. Galjanic, and G.A. McKinley (2022) Explicit physical knowledge in machine learning for ocean carbon flux reconstruction: The pCO2-Residual method, JAMES e2021MS002960, doi:10.1029/2021MS002960. (71)

Bennington, V.S., L. Gloege, and G.A. McKinley (2022) Variability in the global ocean carbon sink from 1959-2020 by correcting models with observations, Geophys. Res. Lett. e2022GL098632, doi:10.1029/2022GL098632. (70)

Olivarez, H., N.S. Lovenduski, R. Brady, A.R. Fay, M. Gehlen, L. Gregor, P. Landschützer, G.A. McKinley, K. McKinnon, and D. Munro (2022) Alternate histories: Synthetic large ensembles of sea-air CO2 flux, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 36, e2021GB007174, doi:10.1029/2021GB007174. (69)

Crisp, D., H. Dolman, T. Tanhua, G.A. McKinley, J. Hauck, A. Bastos, S. Sitch, S. Eggleston, V. Aich (2022) How well do we understand the land-ocean-atmosphere carbon cycle? Reviews of Geophysics, 60, e2021RG000736, doi:10.1029/2021RG000736. (68) Summary of this paper in AGU EOS

Gloege, L., M. Yan, T. Zheng and G.A. McKinley (2022) Improved quantification of ocean carbon uptake by using machine learning to merge global models and pCO2 data, JAMES, doi:10.1029/2021MS002620. (67) Access the LDEO HPD data product on Zenodo.

Laughner, J.L, J.L. Neu, D. Schimel, P.O. Wennberg, K. Barsanti, K. Bowman, A. Chatterjeee, B. Croes, H. Fitzmaurice, D. Henze, J. Kim, E.A. Kort, Z. Liu, Kazuyuki Miyazaki, A.J. Turner, S. Anenberg, J. Avise, H. Cao, D. Crisp, J. de Gouw, A. Eldering, J.C. Fyfe, D.L. Goldberg, K.R. Gurney, S. Hasheminassa, F. Hopkins, C. E. Ivey, D.B.A. Jones, N.S. Lovenduski, R.V. Martin, G.A. McKinley, L. Ott, B. Poulter, M. Rua, S.P. Sander, N. Swart, Y.L. Yung, Z-C Zeng, and the rest of the Keck Institute for Space Studies “COVID-19: Identifying Unique Opportunities for Earth System Science” study team (2021) Societal shifts due to COVID-19 reveal large-scale complexities and feedbacks between atmospheric chemistry and climate change, PNAS doi:10.1073/pnas.2109481118. (66)

Fay, A.R., L. Gregor, P. Landschützer, G.A. McKinley, N. Gruber, M. Gehlen, Y. Iida, G.G. Laurelle, C. Rödenbeck, J. Zeng (2021) SeaFlux: harmonization of air-sea CO2 fluxes from surface pCO2 data products using a standardised approach, ESSD doi:10.5194/essd-13-4693-2021. (65)

Fay, A. R., and G.A. McKinley (2021) Observed regional fluxes to constrain modeled estimates of the ocean carbon sink, Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1029/2021GL095325. (64)

Ridge, S.M., and G.A. McKinley (2021) Ocean carbon uptake under aggressive emission mitigation, Biogeosciences doi:10.5194/bg-18-2711-2021. (63)

Gloege, L., G.A. McKinley, P. Landschützer, A. Fay, T. Frölicher, J.C. Fyfe, T. Illyina, S.D. Jones, N.S. Lovenduski, C. Rödenbeck, K.B. Rodgers, S. Schlunegger and Y. Takano (2021) Quantifying errors in observationally-based estimates of ocean carbon sink variability, Global Biogeochem. Cycles doi:10.1029/2020GB006788. (62)

Lovenduski, N.S., N.C. Swart, A.J. Sutton, J.C. Fyfe, G.A. McKinley, C. Sabine and N.L. Williams (2021) The ocean carbon response to COVID-related emissions reductions, Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1029/2020GL092263. (61)

Stamell, J., R.R. Rustagi, L. Gloege, and G.A. McKinley (2020) Strengths and weaknesses of three Machine Learning methods for pCO2 interpolation, Geoscientific Model Development Discussions doi:10.5194/gmd-2020-311 (60).

Diffenbaugh, N.S., C.B. Field, E. Appel, I. Azevedo, D. Baldocchi, M. Burke, J. Burney, P. Ciais, S.J. Davis, A.M. Fiore, S. Fletcher, T. Hertel, D.E. Horton, S. Hsiang, R.B. Jackson, X. Jin, M. Levi, D. Lobell, G.A. McKinley, F.C. Moore, A. Montgomery, K.C. Nadeau, D. Pataki, J.T. Randerson, M. Reichstein, J.L. Schnell, S.I. Seneviratne, D. Singh, A. Steiner and G. Wong-Parodi (2020) The COVID-19 Lockdowns: A Window into the Earth System, Nature Reviews Earth & Environment doi:10.1038/s43017-020-0079-1. (59)

Ridge, S.M. and G.A. McKinley (2020) Advective controls on the North Atlantic anthropogenic carbon sink, Global Biogeochem. Cycles doi:10.1029/2019GB006457. (58)

McKinley, G.A., A.R. Fay, Y. Eddebbar, L. Gloege and N. Lovenduski (2020) External forcing explains recent decadal variability of the ocean carbon sink, AGU Advances doi: 10.1029/2019AV000149. (57) Press coverage: AGU EOS, Nature Climate Change, Bloomberg, Inside Science

Gloege, L., G.A. McKinley, R. Mooney, J.D. Allan, M.W. Diebel and P.B. McIntyre (2020) Lake hydrodynamics intensify the potential impact of watershed pollutants on coastal ecosystem services, Envi. Res. Lett. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/ab7f62. (56)

Uchida, T., D. Balwada, R. Abernathey, G.A. McKinley, S. Smith and M. Levy (2020) Eddy iron fluxes control primary production in the open Southern Ocean, Nature Communications. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-14955-0. (55)

Uchida, T., D. Balwada, R. Abernathey, G.A. McKinley, S. Smith and M. Levy (2019) The contribution of submesoscale over mesoscale eddy iron transport in the open Southern Ocean, J. Adv. Model. Earth Sys., doi:10.1029/2019MS001805. (54)

Chen, H.C. and G.A. McKinley (2019) Isopycnal processes allow for summertime heterotrophy despite net oxygen accumulation in the lower-euphotic zone of the western North Atlantic subtropical gyre, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, doi:10.1029/2018GB006094. (53)

McKinley, G.A., A.L. Ritzer, and N.S. Lovenduski (2018) Mechanisms of northern North Atlantic biomass variability, Biogeosciences 15, 6049-6066, doi:10.5194/bg-15-6049-2018. (52)

Fay, A.R., N.S. Lovenduski, G.A. McKinley, D.R. Munro, C. Sweeney, A.R. Gray, P. Landschutzer, B. Stephens, T. Takahashi, N. Williams (2018) Utilizing the Drake Passage Time-series to understand variability and change in subpolar Southern Ocean pCO2, Biogeosciences 15, 3841-3855, doi:10.5194/bg-15-3841-2018. (51)

Muller-Karger et al. (2018) Satellite sensor requirements for monitoring essential biodiversity variables of coastal ecosystems. Ecological Applications, doi:10.1002/eap.1682. (50)

Peters, G.P., C. LeQuere, R.M. Andrew, J.G. Canadell, P. Friedlingstein, T. Ilyina, R.B. Jackson, F. Joos, J.I. Korsbakken, G.A. McKinley, S. Sitch, and P. Tans (2017) Towards real-time verification of CO2 emissions, Nature Climate Change, doi:10.1038/s41558-017-0013-9. (49)

Golub, M., A.R. Desai, G.A. McKinley, C.K. Remucal, and E.H. Stanley (2017) Large uncertainty in estimating pCO2 from carbonate equilibria in lakes, J. Geophys. Res.- Biogeosciences, 122 (48)

Pilcher, D.J., G.A. McKinley, J. Kralj, H.A. Bootsma, and E. D. Reavie (2017) Modeled sensitivity of Lake Michigan productivity and zooplankton to changing nutrient concentrations and quagga mussels, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans doi:10.1002/2017JG003818. (47)

Gloege, L., G.A. McKinley, C.B. Mouw, A. Ciochetto. (2017) Global evaluation of particulate organic carbon flux parameterizations and implications for atmospheric pCO2, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, doi:10.1002/2016GB005535. (46)

Orr, J. C., Najjar, R. G., Aumont, O., Bopp, L., Bullister, J. L., Danabasoglu, G., Doney, S. C., Dunne, J. P., Dutay, J.-C., Graven, H., Griffies, S. M., John, J. G., Joos, F., Levin, I., Lindsay, K., Matear, R. J., McKinley, G. A., Mouchet, A., Oschlies, A., Romanou, A., Schlitzer, R., Tagliabue, A., Tanhua, T., and Yool, A. (2017) Biogeochemical protocols and diagnostics for the CMIP6 Ocean Model Intercomparison Project (OMIP), Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2169-2199, doi:10.5194/gmd-10-2169-2017. (45)

Fay, A.R. and G.A. McKinley (2017) Correlations of surface ocean pCO2 to satellite chlorophyll on monthly to interannual timescales, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 31, doi:10.1002/2016GB005563. (44)

McKinley, G.A., A.R. Fay, N. Lovenduski, and D.J. Pilcher (2017) Natural variability and anthropogenic trends in the ocean carbon sink, Ann. Rev. Mar. Sci. 9: 125-150, doi:10.1146/annurev-marine-010816-060529. (43)

Mouw, C.B., A. Barnett, G.A. McKinley, L. Gloege, D.J. Pilcher (2016) Phytoplankton size impact on export flux in the global ocean, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 30, doi:10.1002/2015GB005355. (42)

Mouw, C.B., A. Barnett, G.A. McKinley, L. Gloege, D.J. Pilcher (2016) Global ocean particulate organic carbon flux merged with satellite parameters. Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 531-541, doi:10.5194/essd-8-531-2016. (41)

Lovenduski, N., G.A. McKinley, A.R. Fay, K. Lindsay, M.C. Long (2016) Partitioning uncertainty in ocean carbon uptake projections, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 30, 1276–1287, doi:10.1002/2016GB005426. (40)

McKinley, G.A., D.J. Pilcher, A.R. Fay, K. Lindsay, M.C. Long, and N. Lovenduski (2016) Timescales for detection of trends in the ocean carbon sink, Nature, doi:10.1038/nature16958. (39) Part of Nature’s Carbon Accounting Collection.

Breeden, M. and G.A. McKinley (2016) Climate impacts on multidecadal pCO2 variability in the North Atlantic: 1948–2009, Biogeosciences, 13, 3387-3396, doi:10.5194/bg-13-3387-2016. (38)

McKinley, G.A., C.A. Carlson, A. Andrews, D. Brown, P. Romero-Lankao, and G. Shrestha (2015) Managing the carbon cycle requires strong science, Eos, 96, doi:10.1029/2015EO040161. (37)

Dave, A., A.D. Barton, M.S. Lozier, and G.A. McKinley (2015) What drives seasonal change in oligotrophic area in the subtropical North Atlantic? J. Geophys. Res. – Oceans, doi: 10.1002/2015JC010787. (36)

Phillips, J., G.A. McKinley, V. Bennington, H. Bootsma, D. Pilcher, R.W. Sterner, N.R. Urban (2015) Evaluating the potential for CO2-induced acidification of the Laurentian Great Lakes, Oceanography 28(2):136–145. doi:10.5670/oceanog.2015.37. (35)

Lovenduski, N., A.R. Fay, G.A. McKinley (2015) Observing multi-decadal trends in Southern Ocean CO2 uptake: What can we learn from an ocean model?, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, doi: 10.1002/2014GB004933. (34)

Pilcher, D.J., G.A. McKinley, V. Bennington, H. Bootsma (2015) Physical and biogeochemical mechanisms of internal carbon cycling in Lake Michigan, J. Geophys. Res., doi: 10.1002/2014JC010594. (33)

Kitchell, J.F., T. Cline, V. Bennington and G.A. McKinley (2015) Challenges of managing invasive sea lamprey in Lake Superior. In Bioeconomics of Invasive Species: Integrating Ecology, Economics, Policy and Management. ed: R. P. Keller, D. M. Lodge, M. A. Lewis, J. F. Shogren, University of Chicago Press. (32)

Fay, A.R., G.A. McKinley, N. Lovenduski (2014) Southern Ocean carbon trends: Sensitivity to methods, Geophys. Res. Lett. doi: 10.1002/2014GL061324. (31)

Fay, A. R., and G. A. McKinley (2014) Global ocean biomes: mean and temporal variability, Earth Syst. Sci. Data 6, 273-284, doi:10.5194/essd-6-273-2014. Download biomes from PANGAEA. (30)

Cline, T., J.F. Kitchell, V. Bennington, G.A. McKinley, E.K. Moody, B.C. Weidel (2014) Climate impacts on landlocked sea lamprey: Implications for host-parasite interactions and invasive species management. Ecosphere 5 (6), art68. doi: 10.1890/ES14-00059.1. (29)

Fay, A. R., and G. A. McKinley (2013), Global trends in surface ocean pCO2 from in situ data, Global Biogeochem. Cycles 27, doi:10.1002/gbc.20051. (28)

Khatiwala, S., Tanhua, T., Mikaloff Fletcher, S., Gerber, M., Doney, S. C., Graven, H. D., Gruber, N., McKinley, G. A., Murata, A., Ríos, A. F., and Sabine, C. L. (2013) Global ocean storage of anthropogenic carbon, Biogeosciences 10, 2169-2191, doi:10.5194/bg-10-2169-2013. (27)

Wanninkhof, R., Park, G. -H., Takahashi, T., Sweeney, C., Feely, R., Nojiri, Y., Gruber, N., Doney, S. C., McKinley, G. A., Lenton, A., Le Quéré, C., Heinze, C., Schwinger, J., Graven, H., and Khatiwala, S. (2013) Global ocean carbon uptake: magnitude, variability and trends, Biogeosciences 10, 1983-2000, doi:10.5194/bg-10-1983-2013. (26)

Mouw, C. B., H. Chen, G. A. McKinley, S. Effler, D. O’Donnell, M. G. Perkins, and C. Strait (2013), Evaluation and optimization of bio-optical inversion algorithms for remote sensing of Lake Superior’s optical properties, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 118, doi:10.1002/jgrc.20139. (25)

Schuster, U., G.A. McKinley, N. Bates, F. Chevallier, S.C. Doney, A.R. Fay, M. González-Dávila, N. Gruber, S. Jones, J. Krijnen, P. Landschützer, N. Lefèvre, M. Manizza, J. Mathis, N. Metzl, N., A. Olsen, A.F. Rios, C. Rödenbeck, J. M. Santana-Casiano, T. Takahashi, R. Wanninkhof, and A.J. Watson (2013) Atlantic and Arctic sea-air CO2 fluxes, 1990–2009. Biogeosciences 10, 607-627, doi:10.5194/bg-10-607-2013. (24)

Bennington, V., G.A. McKinley, N. Urban, C. McDonald (2012) Can spatial heterogeneity explain the perceived imbalance in Lake Superior’s carbon budget? A model study. J. Geophys. Res. 117, G03020, 20 PP., 2012 doi:10.1029/2011JG001895. (23)

McDonald, C.P., V. Bennington, N. Urban and G.A. McKinley (2012) Test-bed calibration of a Lake Superior biogeochemical model, Ecological Modelling 225, 115-126, doi: 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2011.11.021. (22)

Vasys, V.N., A.R. Desai, G.A. McKinley, V. Bennington, A.M. Michalak, D.N. Huntzinger, and A.E. Andrews (2011) Implications of neglecting large lake carbon cycling for regional tracer transport inversions. Envi. Res. Lett. 6, 2011, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/6/3/034016. (21)

McKinley, G.A., A.R. Fay, T. Takahashi and N. Metzl (2011) Convergence of atmospheric and North Atlantic carbon dioxide trends on multidecadal timescales. Nature Geoscience; doi:10.1038/ngeo1193. (20) Supplementary Material can be found here

Atilla, N., G. A. McKinley, V. Bennington, M. Baehr, N.Urban, M. DeGrandpre, A. Desai, and C. Wu (2011) Observed variability of Lake Superior pCO2, Limnol. Oceanogr., 56(3), 2011, 775-786, doi:10.4319/lo.2011.56.3.0775. (19)

Bennington, V., G. A. McKinley, N. Kimura, and C. H. Wu (2010) General circulation of Lake Superior: Mean, variability, and trends from 1979 to 2006, J. Geophys. Res., 115, C12015, doi:10.1029/2010JC006261. (18)

Saba, V. and others (2010) Challenges of modeling depth-integrated marine primary productivity over multiple decades: A case study at BATS and HOT, Global Biogeochem. Cycles., 24, GB3020, doi:10.1029/2009GB003655. (17)

Illari L., J. Marshall, P. Bannon, J. Botella, R. Clark, T. Haine, A. Kumar, S. Lee, K. J. Mackin, G.A. McKinley, M. Morgan, R. Najjar, T. Sikora, and A. Tandon (2009) Weather in a Tank: Exploiting laboratory experiments in the teaching of meteorology, oceanography and climate. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 90(11), doi:10.1175/2009BAMS2658.1. (16)

Desai, A., J. Austin, V. Bennington and G.A. McKinley (2009) Stronger winds over a large lake in response to a weakening air to lake temperature gradient. Nature Geoscience, doi:10.1038/ngeo693. (15)

Ullman, D.J., G.A. McKinley, V. Bennington, and S. Dutkiewicz (2009), Trends in the North Atlantic carbon sink: 1992 – 2006, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 23, GB4011, doi:10.1029/2008GB003383. (14) Supplementary Material

Bennington, V, G.A. McKinley, S. Dutkiewicz, D. Ullman (2009) What does chlorophyll variability tell us about export and air-sea CO2 flux variability in the North Atlantic? Global Biogeochem. Cycles., 23, GB3002, doi:10.1029/2008GB003241. (13) Supplementary Material

Koch, J., G.A. McKinley, V. Bennington, and D. Ullman (2009), Do hurricanes cause significant interannual variability in the air-sea CO2 flux of the subtropical North Atlantic?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L07606, doi:10.1029/2009GL037553. (12) highlighted by Nature Reports Climate Change link Supplementary Material

Cassar, N., G.A. McKinley, M.L. Bender, R. Mika, and M. Battle (2008) An improved comparison of atmospheric Ar/N2 time-series and paired ocean-atmosphere model predictions, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D21122, doi:10.1029/2008JD009817. (11)

Nevison, C.D., N.M. Mahowald, S.C. Doney, I.D. Lima, G.R. van der Werf, J.T. Randerson, D.F. Baker, P. Kasibhatla and G. A. McKinley (2008) Contribution of ocean, fossil fuel, land biosphere and biomass burning carbon fluxes to seasonal and interannual variability in atmospheric CO2, J. Geophys. Res., 113, G01010, doi:10.1029/2007JG000408. (10)

Sweeney, C., E. Gloor, A. R. Jacobson, R. M. Key, G. McKinley, J. L. Sarmiento, and R. Wanninkhof (2007) Constraining global air-sea gas exchange for CO2 with recent bomb 14C measurements,Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 21, GB2015, doi:10.1029/2006GB002784. (9)

McKinley, G.A., T. Takahashi, E. Buitenhuis, F. Chai, J. R. Christian, S. C. Doney, M.-S. Jiang, C. Le Quere, I. Lima, K. Linday, J.K. Moore, R. Murtugudde, L. Shi, P.Wetzel (2006) North Pacific carbon cycle response to climate variability on seasonal to decadal timescales. J. Geophys. Res., 111, C07S06, doi:10.1029/2005JC003173. (8)

McKinley, G.A., M. Zuk, M. Hojer, M. Avalos, I. Gonzalez, R. Iniestra, I. Laguna, M.A. Martinez, P. Osnaya, and J. Martinez (2005) Quantification of local and global benefits from air pollution control in Mexico City. Environ. Sci. Technol., 39, 1954-1961 doi:10.1021/es035183e. (7)

Peylin, P., P. Bousquet, C. LeQuere, P. Friedlingstein, S. Sitch, G.A. McKinley, N. Gruber, P. Ciais, and P. Rayner (2005) Multiple constraints of regional CO2 flux variations over land and oceans. Global Biogeochem. Cycles. 18, GB1011, doi: 10/1029/2003GB002214. (6)

McKinley, G.A., C. Rodenbeck, M. Gloor, S. Houweling and M. Heimann (2004) Pacific dominance to global air-sea CO2 flux variablility: A novel atmospheric inversion agrees with ocean models. Geophys. Res. Let., 31, GL22308, doi:10.1029/2004GL021069. (5)

McKinley, G.A., M. J. Follows, and J. Marshall (2004), Mechanisms of air-sea CO2 flux variability in the equatorial Pacific and the North Atlantic, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 18, GB2011, doi:10.1029/2003GB002179. (4)

McKinley, G.A., M. J. Follows, J. Marshall, and S. Fan (2003) Interannual variability of air-sea O2fluxes and the determination of CO2 sinks using atmospheric O2/N2. Geophys. Res. Let. v 30(3), 1101, doi:10.1029/2002GL016044. (3)

Battle, M., M. Bender, M.B. Hendricks, D.T. Ho, R. Mika, G.A. McKinley, S. Fan, T. Blaine, and R. Keeling (2003) Measurements and models of the atmospheric Ar/N2 ratio. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(15), 1786, doi:10.1029/2003GL017411. (2)

McKinley, G.A., M. Follows, and J. Marshall (2000) Interannual variability of the air-sea flux of oxygen in the North Atlantic. Geophys. Res. Let., 27(18), 2933-2936. (1)

Other products and publications

Carroll, D., D. Menemenlis, Z. Hong, M. Mazloff, G.A. McKinley, A.R. Fay, S. Dutkiewicz, J. Lauderdale and I. Fenty (2024). Evaluation of the ECCO-Darwin Ocean Biogeochemistry State Estimate vs. In-situ Observations (ver 1.0). Zenodo.

Crisp, D., H. Dolman, T. Tanhua, G.A. McKinley, J. Hauck, A. Bastos, S. Sitch, S. Eggleston and V. Aich (2022) Mysteries of the global carbon cycle, Eos, 103,

Aricò, S., Arrieta, J. M., Bakker, D. C. E., Boyd, P. W., Cotrim da Cunha, L., Chai, F., Dai, M., Gruber, N., Isensee, K., Ishii, M., Jiao, N., Lauvset, S. K., McKinley, G. A., Monteiro, P., Robinson, C., Sabine, C., Sanders, R., Schoo, K. L., Schuster, U., Shutler, J. D., Thomas, H., Wanninkhof, R., Watson, A. J., Bopp, L., Boss, E., Bracco, A., Cai, W., Fay, A., Feely, R. A., Gregor, L., Hauck, J., Heinze, C., Henson, S., Hwang, J., Post, J., Suntharalingam, P., Telszewski, M., Tilbrook, B., Valsala, V. and Rojas Aldana, A. (2021) Integrated Ocean Carbon Research: A Summary of Ocean Carbon Research, and Vision of Coordinated Ocean Carbon Research and Observations for the Next Decade. R. Wanninkhof, C. Sabine and S. Aricò (eds.). Paris, UNESCO. 46 pp. (IOC Technical Series, 158.)

Bingham, F., L. Juranek, M. Mazloff, G.A. McKinley, N. Nelson, S. Wijffels (2019) Review of US GO-SHIP (Global Oceans Ship-Based Hydrographic Investigators Program) An OCB and US CLIVAR Report. Report 2019 (OCB) and 2019-6 (US CLIVAR).112pp.

Mouw, C.B. A. Barnett, G.A. McKinley, L. Gloege* and D.J. Pilcher* (2016) Global Ocean Particulate Organic Carbon flux merged with satellite parameters.

Benway, H., Alin, S., Boyer, E., Cai, W.-J., Coble, P., Cross, J., Friedrichs, M., Goñi, M., Griffith, P., Herrmann, M., Lohrenz, S., Mathis, J., McKinley, G., Najjar, R., Pilskaln, C., Siedlecki, S., Smith, R. 2016. A Science Plan for Carbon Cycle Research in North American Coastal Waters. Report of the Coastal CARbon Synthesis (CCARS) community workshop, August 19-21, 2014, Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry Program and North American Carbon Program, 84 pp. Download PDF

Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry Program (2015) Temporal and Spatial Perspectives on the Fate of Anthropogenic Carbon: A Carbon Cycle Slide Deck for Broad Audiences with explanatory notes. Contributors: S. Khatiwala, T. DeVries, J. Cook, G.A. McKinley, C. Carlson, H. Benway. doi: 10.1575/1912/7670.

Bracco, A., M.C. Long, N.M. Levine, R.Q. Thomas, C. Deutsch and G.A. McKinley (2015) NCAR’s Summer Colloquium: Capacity building in cross-disciplinary research of earth system carbon-climate connections, Bulletin Am. Met. Soc., 96, 1381–1384.

Fay, A.R. and G.A. McKinley (2014) Global Ocean Biomes: Mean and time-varying maps. doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828650.

Thomas, R.Q., G.A. McKinley, and M.C. Long (2013) Examining uncertainties in representations of the carbon cycle in Earth System Models. EOS Transactions 94:460.

Mooney, M. E., Ackerman, S., Mckinley, G. A., Whittaker, T. and Jasmin, T. (2012) Lesson Plans and Classroom Activities from the Climate Literacy Ambassadors Community. The Earth Scientist 28, 1–40. Download PDF

Michalak, A.M., R.B. Jackson, G. Marland, C. Sabine and The Carbon Cycle Working Group: R.F. Anderson, D. Bronk, K.J. Davis, R.S. Defries, A. S. Denning, L. Dilling, A. Jacobson, S. Lohrenz, A.D. McGuire, G.A. McKinley, C. Miller, B. Moore III, D.S. Ojima, B. O’Neill, J.T. Randerson, S.W. Running, B. Sohngen, P.P. Tans, P.E. Thorton, S.C. Wofsy, N. Zeng (2011) A U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Plan, a UCAR report.

McKinley, G.A, N. Urban, V. Bennington, D. Pilcher, and C. McDonald, (2011) Preliminary Carbon Budgets for the Laurentian Great Lakes, OCB News 4 Download PDF

Alin S.R., J. Day, G.A. McKinley, C. Stow, M. Baker, E. Brody, R. Bohne, T. Nalepa, T. Heatlie, A.J. Sutton, and R.A. Feely (2010) Great Lakes Region Acidification Research Plan—NOAA Ocean Acidification Steering Committee: NOAA Ocean and Great Lakes Acidification Research Plan, NOAA Special Report, 143 pp.

Papers in Preparation

Moseley, L., G.A. McKinley, A. Nguyen, D. Carroll, D. Menemenlis. Using a data constrained regional model to understand Labrador Sea oxygen dynamics, in prep.

Wong, S.C.W., G.A. McKinley, and R. Seager. Six decades of variability in the ocean carbon sink, in prep.


McKinley, G.A. (2002) Interannual variability in air-sea fluxes of carbon dioxide and oxygen, MIT PhD. Download PDF